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Crop Improvement

 

High yielding rice varieties and hybrids released (48+1)

:

Varieties ADT1 to ADT(R) 48

Hybrid ADTRH1

Rice varieties introduced (14)

:

IR 20, IR34, IR 50, IR 64, Pusa 33,Pusa 2-21, IET 1722, IET 1444, IET 4786, IET 3257, Ponni (Red), Imp.White Ponni., NLR 9672 and CR 1009

Rice Fallow Crops

 

 

Black gram (5)

:

ADT1 to ADT 4(Rice Fallow)

ADT 5 (Summer Irrigated)

Green gram(3)

:

ADT 1 to ADT 3

Soybean (1)

:

ADT 1

Cotton(1)

:

ADT 1

Quality Seeds

 

 

Nucleus/breeder and TFL seeds are being produced for the following crop varieties

 

Crop/Variety

Nucleus seed

Breeder seed

Rice

ADT 36,37,38,39, 42,43,44 ADT(R)45,46,47,48, IR 36,IR 64, CR 1009, Imp.WP and IR 58025 A& B , IR 66R

ADT 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, CR1009,

Blackgram

ADT 3, 4 and 5

 

Greengram

ADT 3

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 Crop Management

Agronomy

  • Medium range weather forecasting valid for 3-10 days is given for farmers with the help of NCMRWF, New Delhi
  • Optimum time of planting is June 15th for Kuruvai, September 10th-24th for Thaladi and July 3rd week for Samba for higher yield
  • Seedling throwing can be followed in labour scarcity period which could save 30 women per hectare. The yields were 5470 kg, 5730 kg and 5605 kg/ha in seedling throwing, line planting and random planting respectively.
  • Drum seeded rice gives comparable yield (5610kg/ha) as that of  line planting (5708 kg/ha)
  • Under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) fourteen days old seedlings raised in mat nursery are planted @ one seedling per hill by adopting a spacing of 22.5x22.5cm. Weeds are incorporated in the soil by cono weeder operation from 14 DAT at 7-10 days interval with intermittent irrigation recorded higher yield.
  • Seed fortification with 1% KCL, sown in  native soil mixed with  powdered DAP @ 2kg/cent, Pseudomonas @ 240g/cent followed by drenching with 0.5% urea solution on 9 DAS is recommended for elite seedling production under modified rice mat nursery
  • Application of  150:60:60 kg/ha with a plant density of 50 hills/m increased yield in hybrid rice (ADT(R)H 1)
  • Pre emergence application of butachlor( 0.75 kg /ha) + bensulfuron methyl (50g/ha) on 3 DAT followed by mechanical weeding on 45 DAT is recommended for broad spectrum weed control in integrated weed management for transplanted rice single crop
  • Sowing blackgram during second fortnight of January and first fortnight of February along with foliar spraying of DAP (2%)+MOP (1%)+NAA (40 ppm) twice (25 and 40 DAS) recorded higher grain yield
  • Pulses, sesame, sunflower, maize and millets (Cholam, Cumbu) were raised as alternate crops during Kuruvai season instead of  rice. All crops performed well both under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Especially maize in irrigated (3500kg/ha) and Cholam in rainfed (1810kg/ha) conditions performed better than other crops.
  • Application of 75 % N & P + Azophosmet @ 2 kg/ha is recommended
  • Herbicide Butachlor+Safener (1kg/ha) and Pretilachlor + Safener (0.4kg/ha)are found to be promising for direct sown rice under puddled condition

Soil Science and Agrl. Chemistry

  • Continued application of recommended dose of NPK (125:50:50 and  150:60:60 kg/ha in Kuruvai and Thaladi  respectively) along with green manure (6.25t/ha green manure in Kuruvai and 12.5t/ha in thaladi respectively) registered consistently highest rice grain yield
  • Application of poultry manure (2.5t/ha) + BGA (40kg/ha) during Kuruvai or Azolla (1000kg/ha) during Thaladi + Phosphobacteria and Azospirillum ( 8 kg/ha) + Groundnut cake  (100kg/ha) recorded higher grain yield
  • Incorporation of rice straw @ 4.0 and 4.7 t/ha  during Kuruvai and Thaladi seasons respectively recorded similar grain yields as that of recommended dose of chemical K fertilizer indicating that the straw could be utilized as supplement for the potassic fertilizers
  • Site Specific Nutrient Management (SSNM) always recorded higher grain yield than in Farmers Fertilizer Practice (FFP), since the SSNM accounts the soil nutrients  supplying capacity and adoption of real time N management with Leaf Colour Chart
  • Leaf Colour Chart can be used for N management in rice and the threshold value chip 4 can be adopted for transplanted rice for both Kuruvai and Thaladi seasons (Kharif and Rabi) with monitoring the leaf colour intensity at weekly intervals starting from 14 DAT up to first flowering.
  • Zincated coir pith compost (4kg ZnSo4 enriched in 750kg coir pith) instead of the recommended (25 kg ZnSo4/ha) recorded similar rice grain yield
  • Foliar application of 0.5% ZnSo4+ FeSo4 thrice at active phases recorded higher grain yield in semi-dry rice
  • Application of river sand or gypsum (500kg/ha)  hastened the root activity of Thaladi rice and decomposition of Kuruvai stubbles respectively
  • In rice fallow cotton, application of 60:30:30kg NPK/ha + biofertilizer (Azospirillum+ Phosphobacteria)+MgSo4 @ 25kg/ha followed by foliar application of DAP 2% + MOP 1% recorded higher kapas yield (1029 kg/ha)which was 14.7% higher than the control (897 kg/ha)
  • Foliar spraying of 2% DAP +1% urea at panicle initiation and at booting stage of paddy has recorded higher grain yield particularly in Thaladi and Samba seasons.
  • Recommended dose of NPK+FYM (12.5t/ha) + Zn So4 (25kg/ha)+Azolla (1t/ha) + 2% DAP and 1% KCL sprays increased Thaladi rice yield
  • Fifty percent of phosphorus (25kg/ha) fertilizer application with zinc solubilizing bacteria recorded higher grain yield of (5.53 t/ha) compared to inorganic fertilizers application (4.64t/ha)

Agrl. Microbiology

  • Phosphobacteria (PSB1) isolated from sodic soil maintained higher population (25.3x10/g) in the root zone and also recorded higher rice grain yield.
  • Application of Azolla (2000kg/ha) or FYM (12.5t/ha) saves 25% of potassium requirement of rice
  • Application of Phosphobacteria (10 pockets/ha) solubilize the added insoluble rock phosphate and also the insoluble soil phosphorus rapidly.

CROP PROTECTION

Agricultural Entomology

  • Rice varieties ADT 37, ADT 38 are resistant against BPH. ADT 44 is a multiple resistant variety against stem borer, BPH and GLH. ADT 4 and ADT 20 are donors identified for GLH
  • TKM 6 and ADT 14 are identified as donor for developing resistant stem borer varieties in rice and were characterized  for the compact and tight leaf sheath, compact sclerenchymatous hypodermis and closer silica chain
  • Through AICRIP programme the entries Salakathi, DRRH 20, WGL 31996 and RP 4511-257 found to exhibit consistent field tolerance against leaf folder, stem borer and whorl maggot
  • Bio ecology of rice pests including insect pests, mites crabs and rodents are being established based on which different forewarning modules were developed
  • Various application techniques to suit different rice growing environment viz., seed treatment, seedling root dip, foliar spraying and sub –soil application were standardized.
  • Use of sex pheromone traps for the management of stem borer was established
  • Development of insecticide resistance due to indiscriminate use of pesticides such as synthetic pyrithroids, phorate and acephate in BPH and carbofuran in leaf folder were established
  • More than 25 plant species were screened for their pest regulatory effects under field and storage condition. Neem oil (3%), NSKE (5%) leaf extract of Vitex, Ipomea and Ocimum sp.(10%) were found effective and are being widely adopted. Potentiation effect of Pongamia oil on Azadirachtin was also documented
  • Augmentory biological control by using Trichogramma sp. against leaf folder and stem borer was developed
  • Conservation techniques for indigenous population of the predatory spider Lycosa and Microvelia (against BPH) and Platygarter oryzae (against gall midge) were developed
  • Integrated Pest Management package for the rice insect pest as well as rodents were developed

Plant Pathology

  • Spraying of Carbendazim+ Thiram (1:1) 0.2% or Pseudomonas fluroescens 0.5% at boot leaf and milky stages were effective in controlling the rice grain discolouration
  • Spraying of fresh cowdung extract (20%) was effective in the management of Bacterial Leaf  Streak disease with higher C:B ratio of 9.7. It is also effective against Bacterial Leaf Blight
  • Neem formulation with Azadirachtin 1.0%EC @ 3ml/lit reduced the sheath blight disease severity to 14 per cent against 33.4 per cent in untreated check. It also increased the grain yield by 934 kg/ha over the check
  • Spraying of new fungicides Flusilazole 40EC @ 0.6ml or Amistar 25SC @ 1.0ml /lit was effective in controlling sheath blight and found to be on par with check fungicides Rhizocin and Sheathmar ( Validamycin compounds)
  • Foliar application of fungicide Antracol 70WP 0.40% or Score 10WP 0.25% twice at tillering and panicle initiation stages effectively reduced the incidence of brown spot and found effective as that of recommended fungicide mancozeb (0.2%)
  • Site Specific Nutrient Management with or without application of Pseudomonas fluorescens was found to reduce sheath rot severity and increased the grain yield compared to Farmers Fertilizer Practice 
  • Azoxystrobin (Amistar 25 SC) @ 500ml/ha is recommended for the management of rice blast and sheath blight
  • Application of Super Pseudomonas (consortia of Pf1+TDK1+PY 15) as seed treatment (10g/kg) soil application (2.5kg/ha) and foliar spray (0.5%) is recommended for the management of major pests and diseases 
  • Two sprays of  Kocide 2000 54 DF @ 2.5g/l (one at boot leaf stage and another at milky stage) is recommended for the management of false smut in rice
  • Combination product  of Tricyclozole+Mancozeb 80WP (0.25%) each can be recommended as alternate chemical for the management of blast, brown spot, sheath rot and grain discoloration.
  • Combination product of Zineb + Hexaconazole72WP (0.2 % each) is recommended for the management of sheath blight disease of rice. 

Agricultural Economics

  • One rupee investment in Kuruvai and Thaladi seasons resulted a profit of Rs.0.61 to 0.74 respectively
  • The yield gap in rice cultivation is 1425 to 1745kg/ha in Kuruvai and 913 to 1701kg/ha in Thaladi season
  • High yielding rice varieties occupied 99.7% and 99.1% in Kuruvai and Thaladi seasons respectively
  • Poor seed setting and pest infestation are major constraints in soybean
  • The wilt disease is the major production constraint in banana (Rasthali) in Cauvery Delta Zone
  • Wide fluctuation in market price and non-existence of marketing facility are the major constraint in banana marketing
  • Pest (caterpillar) and disease (virus) and excessive drought during flowering premature flower and poor pod shedding are production constraints in rice fallow pulses

Agricultural Extension

  • Organizing of seminars, workshops, farmers day, AIR broadcasting, TV telecasting, publication of popular articles (Tamil and English) group discussion and village level meetings, field visits, field day and answering the queries are being followed
  • Increased the rate of adoption of improved varieties and technologies through Front Line Demonstration
  • Organizing need based training programmes for farmers, farm women, unemployed youths and women self-help groups
  • Timely solutions are being given to farmers’ problems through farm advisory service, office calls and personal letters

Agricultural Engineering

  • A low cost drum seeder was developed for paddy and soybean
  • A simple portable manual threshing aid for paddy was developed
  • A dry heat parboiling unit saves 50-60% in energy compared to other modern methods
  • Paper board developed from Ipomoea cornea had good quality characteristics
  • The cost of cultivation and energy required is less when power operated transplanter is used 
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