Agrl. Entomology

Dr. S. SURESH, Ph.D.,
Professor & Head



Unit of Entomology

          The unit of entomology of Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai includes Agricultural entomologists and Plant Nematologist, engaged in diverse research focusing on plant pests including nematodes and their interaction with rice ecosystem.

Main Objectives

  • To conduct research on screening rice varieties for major pests and epidemiology of insects and evaluation of plant protection on insects, rodents and nematodes on rice and rice fallow crops.
  • To identify resistant donors to major insect pests like yellow stemborer and Brown Planthopper through field and green house screening
  • To evaluate newer insecticide molecules against major insect pests,studying their compatibility with newer fungicides and to evaluate their safety to natural enemies of rice pests
  • Fine tuning of IPM practices and conduct of on farm IPM demonstrations in the farmers field
  • Undertake pest diagnostic survey and offer management options to the farmers
  • To screen rice varieties against rice rootknot nematode and to develop IPM practices

FUTURE THRUST AREA

  • Identification of resistant varieties for yellow stemborer, BPH and to rice rootknot nematode through different sources
  • Understanding insect plant interaction metabolite chemicals in isogonics resistant lines.(Chemical Ecology)
  • Field testing of the new resistant lines through multi location trial .
  • Understanding the tritrophic interaction involving resistant lines- BPH – Green mirid bug,/spider a potential bio control agency.
  • Fine tuning of integrated pest management methods with the emphasis on cost reduction and environmental safety and sustainability.
  • Generating data for safer ecofriendly pesticides for management of insects .
  • Develop and updating surveillance and forecasting system for rice pest.
  • Developing a pheromone product for stem borer a key component for IPM.

 

Yellow stem borer (YSB)

 

MANAGEMENT

  • Stem borers can be managed using cultural control measures, biological control agents, the use of resistant varieties, and chemical control.
  • Cultural control measures include proper timing of planting and synchronous planting. The crops should be harvested at ground level to remove the larvae in stubble.
  • Likewise, stubble and volunteer rice should be removed and destroyed.
  • Ploughing and flooding the field can kill larvae and pupae in the stubbles.
  • At seedbed and transplanting, egg masses should be handpicked and destroyed.
  • The level of irrigation water can be raised periodically to submerge the eggs deposited on the lower parts of the plant.
  • Before transplanting, the leaf-top can be cut to reduce carry-over of eggs from the seedbed to the field.
  • Application of nitrogen fertilizer should be split following the recommended rate and time of application.
  • Insecticides such as fipronil applied as granules to the paddy water or soil can help to protect plants at vegetative stage, but granular insecticides are generally not effective at the reproductive stage. 

BROWN PLANT HOPPER

Management

  • Draining the rice field for 3-4 days is recommended during the early stage of infestation. Nitrogen application can be split to reduce BPH buildup.
  • Synchronous planting within 3 weeks of staggering and maintaining a free-rice period could also decrease the build-up of BPH.
  • The common parasites of the eggs are the hymenopteran wasps.
  • Eggs are preyed upon by mirid bugs and phytoseiid mites. Both eggs and nymphs are preyed upon by mirid bugs.
  • Nymphs and adults are eaten by general predators, particularly spiders and coccinellid beetles.
  • Hydrophilid and dytiscid beetles, dragonflies, damselflies, and bugs such as nepid, microveliid, and mesoveliid eat adults and nymphs that fall onto the water surface.
  • Fungal pathogens also infect brown planthoppers.
  • There are varieties released by IRRI, which contain genes for BPH resistance, like IR26, IR64, IR36, IR56, and IR72.
  • BPH is a secondary problem due to insecticide spraying for leaf-feeding insects in the early crop stages.
  • To reduce the risk of hopperburn, application of early season insecticide should be avoided.
  • WBPH population can be regulated by natural biological control agents. For example, small wasps parasitize the eggs.

RICE LEAF FOLDER  

Management

  • In cultural control, it is advised not to use too much fertilizer.
  • It was observed in a field experiment that highly fertilized plots attract females. Surrounding grass habitats should be maintained because these serve as temporary reservoirs of natural enemies like crickets, which are egg predators of leaffolders. Herbicide spraying and burning of these non-rice habitats might not be useful.
  • Among the biological control agents, there are small wasps and crickets that attack the eggs.
  • The larval and pupal stages are parasitized by many species of wasps. Damselflies, ants, beetles, wasps, mermithids, granulosis virus, and nucleopolyhedrosis virus prefer the larval stages. Spiders and mermithids attack the adults.
  • There are many varieties from the Philippines, Korea, United States, Honduras, Taiwan, Vietnam, and the former USSR that show resistance to the rice leaffolders.
  • Control of the rice leaffolders using chemicals during the early crop stages is not advisable.
  • A general rule-of-thumb is “spraying insecticides for leaffolder control in the first 30 days after transplanting (or 40 days after sowing) is not needed.”
  • The rice crop can compensate from the damage when water and fertilizer are well managed. Pyrethroids and other broad-spectrum insecticides can kill the larvae but can put the crop at risk because of the development of secondary pests, such as the brown planthopper.
  • If infestations of the flag leaves are extremely high (>50%) during maximum tillering and maturity stage, insecticide sprays may be useful. Such applications may stop further defoliation and may avoid losses.

EXTERNALLY FUNDED SCHEME 

S.No

Title of the scheme

Sponsorer

Period

Budget (Rs.)

Progress made so far

 

1.       

Real Time Pest Surveillance of Rice under National initiative on Climatic Resilient Agriculture (RTPS- NICRA)

NCIPM, 

New Delhi

Aug.11

to

Mar. 14

(financial year )  Extended for one more year

5,00,000

Weekly pest and disease surveillance has been carried out in 10 villages under protected condition and in experimental station under protected and unprotected condition during Kharif and Rabi season. The pest and weather parameters have been uploaded in the NICRA website every week.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research Highlights

Host Plant Resistance

a. Brown PlantHopper

·      Among the 90 AICRIP entries (Plant Hopper Screening) screened for reaction against BPH under net house condition, the entries viz., CR 3006-8-2, CR 2459-12-8, KAUM 179-1, KAUM 179-2 were found to be resistant .

·       Among the 20 AICRIP entries (Plant Hopper Screening Special) screened for reaction against BPH under net house condition, the entry no. 16 (OM 4498) & 17 (RP 2068-18-3-5) were found to be resistant .

b. Stemborer

·      Among 30 entries screened for multiple resistance against pests, the entries KAUM 166-2 (4.0 %), RNR 15038 (3.9%), RNR 15048 (4.0 %), RP Bio 4918-142 (4.2%), RP Bio 4919-198 (4.1%), RP Bio 4919-50-12 (3.6 %), RP Bio 4919-363-5 (4.6 %), W1263 (4.7 %) recorded the lowest white ear damage.

·      Under  MLT, among 40 entries  screened for reaction against stemborer, the entry CB 09533 & ADT (R) 45 are free from dead heart damage as against entry CR 1009 (18.9%) and  ADT 39 recorded lowest white ear damage of 2.6 % as against 17.8 % in  entry TNAU (Rice )ADT 50.

·      Under MLT, among 11 entries (Coimbatore)  screened, the entry TNTRH 39 (0.6 %), entry Co 50 (1.4%), entry Co RH 4 (2.1%) recorded lower dead heart damage as against 7.2 % in entry TNRH 243.

·      Under ART 18 entries (Aduthurai) screened, entry TM 07335 (2.4%), TNAU Rice Co 51 (3.9 %) and AS10024 (4.2%) recorded lower dead heart as against 32.5 % in entry TM 05091. The entry TM 07335 (5.4%) recorded low white ear damage as against 17.9 % in entry CR 1009.

c. Leaffolder

·      Among 40  MLT entries screened for reaction against leaffolder, the entry  ADT 43 (0.3%), CB10553 (0.8%) and TP08045 (0.8 %) recorded low leaf damage as against 15.5 % in CB 09022-Gm1.

·         Among 6 entries (Trichy) screened, entry TRY 3 recorded low leaf damage (4.2 %) as against 12.2 % in entry TR05-043.

·         Among 18 ART entries screened, entry TM 05091 (2.3 %), CR 1009 (2.4 %), AS 10024 (3.7%) recorded lower leaf damage as against 19.7 % in entry no. AD 07250.

ii. Chemical control

·             Two season field trials on testing the efficacy of Ek boond, an efficacy enhancer revealed that the application of acephate + Ek boond @ 526 g + 200 ml /ha at 50 DAT recorded the lowest damage to earheads (2.4 %) as against 7.3 % in untreated check and there was no significant among the treatments. Tank mixing of the efficacy enhancer viz., Ek Boond with different insecticides has not increased the efficacy when they are used with different insecticides .

iii. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

·         Adoption of IPM components resulted in net saving of Rs. 3000/ha towards plant protection cost as against Farmers Practice. The BC ratio was 1: 2.3 in IPM as against 1:2.1 in Farmers Practice. The population of natural enemies was  higher in IPM than Farmers Practice.

Behavioral Control

·         Pheromone  monitoring of rice yellow Stemborer resulted in maximum weekly mean trap catches of 10 adults / trap was observed in the last week of November 2013 (21.11.2013 to 28.11.2013) in RTPD –NICRA villages in Kumbakonam block whereas it was in the second week of October 2013  in experimental station- TRRI, Aduthurai

v. Change in Pest Scenario

·         Outbreak of rice mealybug, Brevennia rehi was observed in direct sown rice in Kilvelur block of Nagapattinam. The situations favored the outbreak were prolonged dry spell for period of 2 -3 weeks and high weed density. 

·         Outbreak of Brown Planthopper was observed in and around Maruthuvakudi,vadavamattam,kuttallam due to cloudy weather coupled with high relative humidity,increased use of nitrogenous fertilisers during December,2014.

PUBLICATIONS

·         Valarmathi, P., R.Rabindran ,R.Velazhahan, S. Suresh and S.Robin 2013. Molecular detection of rice tungro disease from the infected samples of Tamil Nadu, Madras agric. J., (Special. Issue, May )148-152

·         Valarmathi, P., R.Rabindran , R.Velazhahan, S. Suresh and S.Robin 2013.First report of rice leaf disease phytoplasma (16Sr I) in rice (Oryza sativa) in India. Australasian Plant dis. (Notes.DOI10.1007/S13314-013-0117-7)

·         Indira kumar ,K., J.S. Kennedy & S.Suresh .2014 laboratory evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuiillning against crawler stage of Paracoccus marginatus (Williams & Granada de Willink) Trends in Biosciences 7 (2): 246-249

  • Vijay , S. And S.Suresh 2014. Bioefficacy of certain insecticides and Beauveria bassiana against coccids in flowers.  Journal of Biopesticides 6(2); 36-100;
  • Chandrasekar, K  and S.Suresh.2014. Evaluation of Resistance in some Rice Genotypes against Brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal).The Allahabad Farmer (accepted for publication)
  • Suresh,S, and Anita sable 2014.Interaction of rice varieties to brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. In: Second International Hemipteran - Plant Interactions Symposium in Riverside, California, USA held during June 22-25,2014 (Abstract)
  • Chandrasekar, K  and S.Suresh.2014. Evaluation of Resistance in some Rice Genotypes against Green leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens The Allahabad Farmer (accepted for publication)
  • Chandrasekar,K and S.Suresh.2014.Resistance of rice varieties to white backed Planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) In: 4th International Rice Congress, Bangkok, Thailand Oct. 26- Dec.1, 2014. Poster
  • Mathirajan, V.G.  and S. Suresh. 2014. Temporal Distribution of Stemborer Complex in Rice Ecosystem. In:4th International Rice Congress, Bangkok, Thailand Oct. 26- Dec.1, 2014. Poster number 306.

·         Mathirajan, V.G.  and S. Suresh. 2014. Status of Natural Egg Parasitization of Rice Yellow StemBorer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) at Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute Farm. In: 4th International Rice Congress, Bangkok, Thailand Oct. 26- Dec.1, 2014. Poster number 307

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 Endomology Unit




   
           


              Name                  Dr.S. Suresh

Designation       Professor & Head 

Specialization    IPM & Coccid Identification

Phone                 : 94434 30232

E-Mail                 ssureshsupra@gmail.com








    
             Name                  Dr.V.G.Mathirajan

Designation       Assistant Professor 

Specialization    Rice IMP, Chemical ecology

Phone                 : 94425 62567

E-Mail                 mathirajanvg@gmail.com









Name                  Dr. P.G.Kavitha

Designation       Asst.Professor (Nematology)

Specialization    Bio management & Molecular  Diagnostics of plant parasitic          

                                         Nematodes.

Phone                 : 9944708010

E-Mail                 kavitha_nem@yahoo.com


 

 

 

 

 

 





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